any malignant tumour, including carcinoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, and sarcoma. It arises from the abnormal, purposeless, and uncontrolled division of cells that then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Spread of cancer cells (metastasis) may occur via the bloodstream or the lymphatic channels or across body cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal spaces (see transcoelomic spread), thus setting up secondary tumours (metastases) at sites distant from the original tumour. Each individual primary tumour has its own pattern of local behaviour and spread; for example, bone metastasis is very common in cancers of the breast, bronchus, thyroid, kidney, and prostate but less common in other tumours.
There are many causative factors, some of which are known; for example, cigarette smoking is associated with lung cancer, radiation with some sarcomas and leukaemia, and several viruses are implicated (see oncogenic). A genetic element is implicated in the development of many cancers. In many cancers a gene called p53 is deleted or impaired: its normal function is to prevent the uncontrolled division of cells (see tumour necrosis factor). Whatever the initiating cause, cancer always results ultimately from DNA mutations.
Treatment of cancer depends on the type of tumour, the site of the primary tumour, and the extent of spread.

The new mediacal dictionary. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • cancer — A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is cancer… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • Cáncer — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Cáncer (desambiguación). Cuando las células normales se lesionan o envejecen, mueren por apoptosis, pero las células cancerosas evitan la apoptosis. El cáncer es un conjunto de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • CANCER — Dans les organismes multicellulaires animaux ou végétaux, chaque cellule constitue une entité morphologiquement et fonctionnellement distincte mais qui est soumise à des mécanismes de contrôle et de régulation extrêmement rigoureux. En fait, sa… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • cáncer — m. oncol. Proceso maligno caracterizado por una pérdida de los mecanismos de control celular normales que conducen a: 1) una proliferación celular descontrolada, 2) ausencia de diferenciación, 3) tendencia a la invasión de los tejidos y los… …   Diccionario médico

  • Cancer — Can cer, n. [L. cancer, cancri, crab, ulcer, a sign of the zodiac; akin to Gr. karki nos, Skr. karka[.t]a crab, and prob. Skr. karkara hard, the crab being named from its hard shell. Cf. {Canner}, {Chancre}.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) A genus of decapod… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cancer — CÁNCER, cancere, s.n. 1. Termen general care denumeşte diverse forme de tumori maligne ce se caracterizează printr o înmulţire excesivă a ţesuturilor unor organe; neoplasm, rac. 2. Boală a plantelor provocată de unele ciuperci şi bacterii… …   Dicționar Român

  • Cancer es-tu là ? — Épisode de Dr House Cancer es tu là ? Titre original Not cancer Épisode Saison 5 Épisode 2 Scénariste(s) Réalisateur Diagnosti …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cancer! — Cancer ! Cancer ! est une revue littéraire française fondée par Johann Cariou et Bruno Deniel Laurent en 2000 et auto dissoute en 2004. Sommaire 1 Les débuts de la revue 2 La vie de la revue 3 Polémiques …   Wikipédia en Français

  • cáncer — sustantivo masculino 1. Enfermedad caracterizada por un crecimiento anormal de las células que invaden y destruyen un órgano: cáncer de colon, cáncer de estómago, cáncer de piel. 2. Pragmática: intensificador. Problema social muy grave: La… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • cancer — CANCER. s. m. (On pronon. l R.) Espèce de tumeur maligne qui dégénère en ulcère, principalement au sein. Une femme qui a un cancer au sein. Arracher un cancer. Extirper un cancer. Elle a le sein tout rongé d un cancer.Cancer. s. masc. Un des… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • cancer — O.E. cancer spreading sore, cancer (also canceradl), from L. cancer a crab, later, malignant tumor, from Gk. karkinos, which, like the Modern English word, has three meanings: crab, tumor, and the zodiac constellation (late 14c. in English), from …   Etymology dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.